The FDA has just updated previous warnings from July 1 and September 21, 2015 (here and here) for use of these two products in children. The new language contains stronger warnings in the form of contraindications for the use of the product in children under the age of 12 and in certain circumstances outlined below for children under the age of 18.
The Agency summarizes the changes as follows.
- FDA’s strongest warning, called a Contraindication, to the drug labels of codeine and tramadol alerting that codeine should not be used to treat pain or cough and tramadol should not be used to treat pain in children younger than 12 years.
- A new Contraindication to the tramadol label warning against its use in children younger than 18 years to treat pain after surgery to remove the tonsils and/or adenoids.
- A new Warning to the drug labels of codeine and tramadol to recommend against their use in adolescents between 12 and 18 years who are obese or have conditions, such as obstructive sleep apnea or severe lung disease, which may increase the risk of serious breathing problems.
- A strengthened Warning to mothers that breastfeeding is not recommended when taking codeine or tramadol medicines due to the risk of serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants. These can include excess sleepiness, difficulty breastfeeding, or serious breathing problems that could result in death.
Parents, caregivers, and healthcare practitioners are cautioned about the new recommendations and advised to use alternative treatments in that age group. The Agency’s safety communication, which can be viewed here, goes on to explain the reasoning for the heightened warnings and restrictions, and identifies the product types that may be implicated.